Abstract:Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the science and technology (S&T) talent policies in China have been continuously optimized and developed Consequently, a multi-layered policy system with vertical and horizontal linkages has been formed. The education and training policies have been improved, the utilization and development policies of talents have been enhanced, and the evaluation and incentive policies have become more rational, which effectively guaranteed the high-quality development of China's S&T talents. However, there are still several problems with the current S&T talent policy system, such as incomplete system, low precision, low integration of technological and educational policy, and insufficient incentives for young S&T talents and basic research talents (thereafter "young-basic talents"), which cannot meet the urgent need under the strategy of sci-tech self-reliance and self-improvement. Therefore, it is vital to consolidate the core position and leading role of the S&T talents development in the construction of the national innovation system under the new situation. Facing the sci-tech self-reliance and self-improvement strategy, the future S&T talent policies need to strengthen selfcultivating, serve national strategy, and focus on industry needs to promote the deep integration of the education chain, talent chain, innovation chain, and industry chain and promote the implementation of policies for young S&T talents, basic research talents and strategic scientists, and outstanding engineers. It is also necessary to promote talent education, training and development policies to meet the needs of sci-tech development by deepening the integration of science and education and establishing a postgraduate education system that follows the laws of scientific research activities. Furthermore, it needs to systematically think about the policy system optimization for the S&T talents evaluation and incentives, to promote the effective implementation of the life security policy of S&T talents. In addition, efforts should be made to promote the establishment of a talent mechanism in line with international standards and to accelerate the construction of the world's important talent centers and innovations highlands.